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创新的光伏太阳能电池薄膜方案  发帖心情 Post By:2018-03-31 16:33:00 [只看该作者]


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 Apr 13, 2009 
Don Rosato

Introduction引言
New Front Sheet Materials新的电池封装前膜材料
New Back Sheet Materials新的背板材料
Related Photovoltaic Suppliers相关光伏供应商



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  发帖心情 Post By:2018-03-31 16:35:00 [只看该作者]

Introduction
引言

Global Photovoltaic Market
全球光伏市场

The explosive global growth of the photovoltaic market on the order of 30% is creating strong opportunities for related specialty engineered material systems. The market for new modules, which hit close to 6 gigawatts/year in 2008, is expected to grow to 35 gigawatts/year by 2015. The combination of high growth, new cell technologies, and a considerable push to cut costs is spurring many new film technologies with the market replete with new film choices and alternative manufacturing methods. There are two types of commercial solar cells: 'first generation' crystalline silicon (c-Si) which constitutes 90% of the market, and the newer 'second generation' thin film technology, which holds promise of lower cost, making up the remaining 10%.

光伏市场以30%的量级发生着爆炸性的增长,从而为相关的特种工程材料体系创造了强大的机会。新的光伏模组在2008年达到近6吉瓦(1吉瓦=1000兆瓦)/年,其市场有望在2015年增长到35吉瓦/年。高的增长、新的电池技术和削减成本的强大动力,三者共同推动着许多新的膜技术,使市场充满了新的膜机会和替代性的制造方法。现有两种类型的商用太阳能电池:“第一代”晶体硅(c-Si)电池,占市场的90%,新的“第二代”薄膜技术,它有望降低成本,占市场剩余的10%。
 
 
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2008 Photovoltaic (PV) Market Demand
(Source: Solarbuzz LLC)

[此贴子已经被作者于2018-03-31 16:37:23编辑过]

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  发帖心情 Post By:2018-03-31 16:39:00 [只看该作者]

Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells
晶体硅太阳能电池

First generation crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic modules consist typically of a glass front sheet or top, an EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) encapsulation film, silicon-wafer photovoltaic material, another EVA film, and finally a back sheet of laminated fluoropolymer and other films. The manufacturing processes that are used to produce first generation solar cells with their related high energy and labor inputs are inherently expensive, meaning that these c-Si based cells take many years to pay for their purchasing costs. However, they have a long operating life (20 to 25 years) and an electrical efficiency on the order of 14% to 23%.

第一代晶体硅(c-Si)光伏模组一般包括一个玻璃前板或者上端板,一个EVA(乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯共聚物)封装膜,最后还有一个由层合的含氟聚合物和别的膜组成的背板。

Thin Film Solar Cells
薄膜太阳能电池

Less fragile than crystalline silicon solar cells, and less expensive to manufacture, the recently developed thin film solar cells (TFSC) also referred to as thin film photovoltaic cells (TFPV) are expected to grow at a faster rate than c-Si from 10% of the current market to about 40% within the next 10 years. TFSC may be either rigid or flexible. They are made by depositing one or more thin layers of photovoltaic material using a variety of deposition methods onto an array of thin substrates such as glass, metal (e.g. aluminum, stainless steel) or plastic (e.g. polyimide). Unlike c-Si, which have light-absorbing layers on the order of 200-350 microns thick, TFSCs have light absorbing layers which range between a few nanometers to tens of micrometers. These thin film cells use one of three major semiconductor materials: a-Si (amorphous silicon), CdTe (cadmium telluride), or CIGS (copper-indium-gallium selenide). Their electrical efficiency ranges between 6 and 20% depending on the semiconductor. Thin film solar cells that make use of other photovoltaic materials including organic solar cells and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are also in development.

近来开发的薄膜太阳能电池(TFSC)也称作薄膜光伏电池(TFPV),比晶体硅脆性小,制造成本更便宜,有望比c-Si更快的速度增长,在未来十年的增长率约在10%到40%。TFSC可以是刚性的,也可以是柔性的。其制造方法是,使用多种沉积方法,在薄型基材阵列上沉积一种到几种的薄层光伏材料,薄型基材包括玻璃,技术(如,铝,不锈钢)或塑料(如,聚酰胺)。不同于光吸收层在200-300微米厚的c-Si,TFSC的光吸收层厚度在几个纳米到几十个微米厚。CdTe(碲化镉),或者CIGS(硒化铜铟镓),它们的电效率取决于半导体类型而在6到20%范围内。利用别的光伏材料的薄膜太阳能电池也在开发中,这些光伏材料包括有机太阳能电池和染料敏化太阳能电池(DSC)。


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  发帖心情 Post By:2018-03-31 16:41:00 [只看该作者]

Nano-Structured Solar Brush Ultra Thin Film Technology
纳米结构的太阳能刷超薄薄膜技术

The University of California at Berkeley spinoff Bloo Solar Inc. has thin-film technology that deposits rod-shaped nano-crystals of CdSe (cadmium selenide) and CdTe upright like brush bristles to increase the material's light absorbency. Instead of an electrode layer with positive and negative sides, pairs of CdSe and CdTe molecules give and receive electrical charges. Each vertical nano 'bristle' increases the total photovoltaic surface area by a significant 6-12 times in comparison to other current thin film products on the market today.  Increasing the amount of light that the cells receive makes the cells much more sensitive to low light situations. Referred to as Solar Brush, the 'ultra thin film' cell holds billions of tiny upright wires within a film area of one square centimeter.

加州大学伯克利分校子公司Bloo Solar Inc.拥有薄膜技术,它将棒状纳米CdSe和CdTe结晶象刷子鬃毛一样垂直沉积于薄膜之上,以增加材料的光吸收效果。没有正负极,CdSe和CdTe分子对发出和接收电荷,每个垂直纳米“鬃毛”增加了总的光伏面积,较之于其它目前市场上的薄膜产品增加了光伏面积达6-12倍。增加了电池接收的光的数量,使得电池对于低光情形更加敏感。被称之为太阳能刷,该超薄薄膜电池在1平方厘米的面积上,拥有数亿根微小垂直电线。


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Solar Brush
(Source: Bloo Solar Inc.)




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  发帖心情 Post By:2018-03-31 16:43:00 [只看该作者]

New Front Sheet Materials

新的前板材料

Front Sheet Overview

前板概述

Crystalline Silicon photovoltaic modules often have a sheet of glass on the front (top) side that allows light to pass through while protecting the semiconductor wafers from the elements (rain, hail, etc.). Monolayer fluoropolymer film such as ETFE (ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene) or its derivatives are typically used as a substitute for glass in the lamination process to produce flexible photovoltaic systems. ETFE used as the front sheet of the photovoltaic module, allows a high level of light transmittance in the operating wavelength range of the solar cells and is also lighter and less fragile than glass while exhibiting little degradation over extended use. The material also provides outstanding mechanical strength, and flexibility while maintaining structural integrity.

晶体硅光伏模组在前(上)面有一个玻璃板,允许光线透过,同时保护半导体晶片免受自然因素(雨,冰雹等)作用。单层膜,例如ETFE(乙烯-四氟乙烯)或其衍生物一般以层压工艺生产柔性光伏系统,用作玻璃替代品。ETFE用作光伏模组前板,允许太阳能电池在光波范围内具有高水平的光透过,比玻璃更少的脆性,同时在延长的使用过程中表现出较少的降解。该材料还提供杰出的力学强度和柔性,同时保持结构整体性。


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  发帖心情 Post By:2018-03-31 16:44:00 [只看该作者]

New Fluoropolymer Front Sheet
新的氟聚合物前板

The advent of flexible TFSC photovoltaic modules has created a new market for plastic front sheets. While most flexible front sheets are based on ETFE fluoropolymer film, several alternative optical front sheet materials have been developed. Rowland Technologies Inc. recently introduced Rowan, the first PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) front sheet. PVDF is an interesting material that exhibits a good blend of properties such as excellent chemical resistance, toughness, resistance to abrasion, and good processability. Using Kynar PVDF from Arkema, Rowland developed the new PVDF front sheet film with excellent weatherability and processability, which has a light transmission greater than 93% and haze less than 9%.

柔性TFSC光伏模组的出现为塑料前板创造了一个新的市场。尽管许多前板是基于ETFE氟聚合物薄膜的,几个替代性的光学前板材料也开发出来了。Rowland Technologies Inc.近来推出了Rowan,第一个PVDF前板。PVDF是一个有利的材料,表现出好的综合性质,例如良好的力学性能、韧性、耐磨损和好的加工性。使用阿科玛的Kynar PVDF,Rowland开发了新的PVDF前板薄膜,具有良好的耐候性和可加工性,透光率大于93%,雾度小于9%。

ManTech Corin XLS Polyimide
ManTech Corin XLS聚酰胺

ManTech International Corp. has developed an interesting new optical front-sheet material Corin XLS,a fluorinated polyimide nanocomposite. The material includes the nano-scale additive, POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) from Hybrid Plastics Inc. which reduces color and resists atomic oxygen, a hazard to space vehicles orbiting the earth. The combination of polyimide and nanocomposite technologies delivers a material with unique levels of optical clarity, atomic oxygen/oxygen plasma durability, and resistance to solar radiation making it an ideal lightweight substitute material for glass employed in photovoltaic array space use in low earth orbit. ManTech initially developed the material for NASA space application.

ManTech International Corp.开发了一个有用的新的光学前板材料,叫做Corin XLS,是一种氟聚合物纳米复合材料。该材料包括纳米尺度的助剂POSS(笼型聚倍半硅氧烷),是Hybrid Plastics Inc.制造的,它减少了颜色,耐原子氧,原子氧会危害环绕地球的空间运动工具。聚酰胺和纳米复合技术的并用提供了一种材料,具有独特的光学透明性,原子氧/氧等离子体耐受性和耐太阳能辐射的性能,这些使得它成为一种理想的轻量化玻纤替代材料,在低地球轨道上使用于光伏阵列空间应用。ManTech起初开发这种材料,为的是NASA空间应用。


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  发帖心情 Post By:2018-03-31 16:45:00 [只看该作者]

New Back Sheet Materials

新的背板材料

Back Sheet Overview

背板概览

Back sheet materials for photovoltaic modules serve multiple purposes by providing the module with electrical insulation, protection from the environment, and structural support. These back sheet functions are crucial for solar cell modules to be safe for anyone working near them and also to protect the structures to which they are attached. To ensure that all photovoltaic modules meet a minimum set of conditions, they must pass qualifications tests such as international standards laid down by the International Electrotechnical Commission (i.e. IEC 61646, 61215, 61730, and 62108), which govern design qualifications and type approval for photovoltaic modules. The standard back sheet material has traditionally been a laminate known as TPT, consisting of biaxially oriented Tedlar PVF (polyvinyl fluoride) film on either side of biaxially oriented PET film. The PET provides dielectric properties and mechanical strength while the PVF protects the PET film from the effects of UV radiation.

背板材料之用于光伏模组者,服务于多个目的,其手段是提供给模组以电绝缘性,保护其免于环境作用以及提供结构支撑。这些背板功能于太阳能模组尤为关键,其目的是保护其附近工作人员的安全,还保护其附属结构。为了确保所有的光伏模组满足最小的一套条件,它们必须通过合格试验,例如由国际电工委员会制定的国际标准(即IEC 61646, 61215, 61730, 62108),这些文件管理光伏模组的设计合格性和类型批准。标准背板材料一般是一种层合材料,称为TPT,其结构包括在双轴取向的PET膜的每一面附着双轴取向Tedlar PVF (聚氟乙烯)膜。PET提供绝缘性能和力学强度,而PVF保护PET膜免遭UV辐射的影响。


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  发帖心情 Post By:2018-03-31 16:46:00 [只看该作者]

Honeywell PowerShield PV325 Back Sheet
霍尼韦尔PowerShield PV325背板

Last year, Honeywell launched five-layer PowerShield PV325 back sheet, a backing material for rigid photovoltaic (PV) modules based on Honeywell's high-performance barrier film technology. PowerShield is designed to protect photovoltaic modules and their crucial solar cell components from all types of environments. Ultra-violet, moisture, and weather resistant, the new back sheet product helps ensure that PV modules are a reliable source of energy over an intended 25-year lifetime.

去年,霍尼韦尔推出了一种五层PowerShield PV325背板,这是一种用于刚性光伏模组的背板材料,它基于霍尼韦尔的高性能阻隔膜技术。PowerShield设计用于保护光伏模组和其关键太阳能电池部件免遭所有类型的环境因素的作用,如紫外线,湿度和耐候,新的背板产品有助于确保PV模组在设定的25年寿命期中是一种可靠的能源资源。

The new back sheet material, with a traditional five-layer design, consists of ECTFE-adhesive-PET-adhesive-ECTFE, i.e. two outer protective layers based on Honeywell's fluoropolymer film ECTFE (ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene), a core PET (polyethylene terephthalate) layer and two inner bonding proprietary adhesive layers. The design is an alternative to traditional backing systems based on polyvinyl fluoride (PVF). PowerShield was developed principally for use in PV modules feeding into the local utility/power grid to serve as a reliable energy source during utility-based power outages and/or through offset high-peak electrical demands with associated peak power costs.

新的背板材料,具有传统的五层设计,包括ECTFE-粘合剂-PET-粘合剂-ECTFE,即,基于霍尼韦尔氟聚合物膜ECTFE(乙烯-三氟氯乙烯交替共聚物)的两个外保护层,一个核芯PET层合两个处于内层的用于粘接的专有粘合剂层。这个设计是替代基于PVF的传统的背板系统。PowerShield被开发出来,主要用于接入本地电网的PV模组,用作可靠的电力资源于公用事业停电期间,以及通过补偿高峰电力需求而具有相关的峰电成本。


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PowerShield PV325 Back Sheet
(Source:
 Honeywell International)
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  发帖心情 Post By:2018-03-31 16:49:00 [只看该作者]

BioSolar BioBacksheet
BioSolar公司的生物基太阳能背板

The use of petroleum-based plastic materials in the manufacture of photovoltaic modules intended for the generation of 'green' solar energy is a fundamental contradiction in terms of the intended objective. BioSolar Inc.'s new BioBacksheet is a low cost back sheet material developed from renewable plant sources intended as an alternative to petroleum-based back sheet material such as Tedlar PVF traditionally used in photovoltaic modules.

使用石油基塑料材料制造光伏模组以期产生“绿色”太阳能能源在其预定目标上是一个根本性的矛盾。BioSolar Inc.公司的新的BioBacksheet是一种新的低成本背板材料,开发于可再生植物资源,以期用于替代石油基背板材料,如Tedlar PVF,它传统上用于光伏模组。

BioSolar's patent pending BioBacksheet for c-Si photovoltaic solar cells is a premium grade back sheet made entirely of biomaterials including Arkema's nylon11 highly water resistant, high dielectric strength nylon derived from castor beans, cotton-fiber paper and polylactic acid film. The back sheet is said to be as effective as TPT and much less expensive. The company is also expanding its BioBacksheet technology to accommodate CIGS and CdTe thin-film modules in recognition of the high growth projected for thin film photovoltaic modules.

BioSolar公司的申请专利的BioBacksheet,用于c-Si光伏太阳能电池,是一个高档背板,完全由生物基材料制成,包括阿科玛的尼龙11,是一种高度耐水解,具有高度绝缘强度的尼龙材料,是蓖麻油籽、棉纤维纸和聚乳酸膜的衍生物。该公司还在扩大其BioBacksheet技术应用,以满足CIGS和CdTe薄膜模组,因为面向薄膜光伏模组的增长很快。


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(Top) c-Si Solar Cell Layers (Bottom) Thin Film Solar Cell Layers
(Source: BioSolar Inc.)



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  发帖心情 Post By:2018-03-31 16:50:00 [只看该作者]

BRP Manufacturing EPDM Monolayer Back Sheet

BRP Manufacturing公司的EPDM单层背板

A novel EPDM (ethylene propylene diene M-class rubber) monolayer back sheet co-developed by BRP Manufacturing and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is potentially the least expensive back sheet reducing costs for both c-Si and thin film photovoltaics. The cross-linked EPDM film replaces a lamination of three higher cost films, EVA sealant, PET dielectric, and Tedular PVF with one inexpensive film. The single encapsulant layer replacing standard module back-sheet constructions consisting of EVA/Tedlar/PET/Tedlar provides an estimated materials cost savings of about $6-8/m2 (square meter) in comparison to traditional back-sheets. Electrical insulation tests found that a 0.33mm EPDM layer provided better high voltage electrical insulation than a combined film of Tedlar (0.038 mm)/PET (0.051 mm)/EVA (0.55 mm). When the EPDM was formulated with a white pigment, reflectivity was comparable to Tedlar.

 

BRP Manufacturing公司和the National Renewable Energy Laboratory公司联合开发了一个EPDM(乙烯-丙烯-丁二烯单体橡胶)单层背板,它可能是最便宜的背板,减少了用于c-Si光伏和薄膜光伏的成本。交联EPDM薄膜,以一种不贵的膜,替代三个高成本薄膜的层合体,即EVA密封体、PET绝缘体和Tedular PVF膜。这种单一的封装层替代标准的EVA/Tedlar/PET/Tedlar模组背板结构,与传统背板相比,估计节省了6-8美元//m2。电绝缘测试发现,一个0.33mmEPDM层,较之于传统的Tedlar (0.038 mm)/PET (0.051 mm)/EVA (0.55 mm)并用层,提供了更好的高压绝缘。当EPDM以白色颜料做成配方材料时,反射性可与Tedlar相比拟。



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EPDM Monolayer Back Sheet

(Source: BRP Manufacturing/National Renewable Energy Laboratory)



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